Cheng M, Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde K. Targeting Phospholipid Metabolism in Cancer. Front Oncol. 2016 Dec 27;6:266. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2016.00266. Review.

Paidi SK, Rizwan A, Zheng C, Cheng M, Glunde K, Barman I. Label-Free Raman Spectroscopy Detects Stromal Adaptations in Premetastatic Lungs Primed by Breast Cancer. Cancer Res. 2017 Jan 15;77(2):247-256. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1862.

Mori N, Wildes F, Takagi T, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. The Tumor Microenvironment Modulates Choline and Lipid Metabolism. Front Oncol. 2016 Dec 22;6:262. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2016.00262.

Kakkad S, Zhang J, Akhbardeh A, Jacob D, Krishnamachary B, Solaiyappan M, Jacobs MA, Raman V, Leibfritz D, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Collagen fibers mediate MRI-detected water diffusion and anisotropy in breast cancers. Neoplasia. 2016 Oct;18(10):585-593. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2016.08.004.

Cao MD, Cheng M, Rizwan A, Jiang L, Krishnamachary B, Bhujwalla ZM, Bathen TF, Glunde K. Targeting choline phospholipid metabolism: GDPD5 and GDPD6 silencing decrease breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. NMR Biomed. 2016 Aug;29(8):1098-107. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3573.

Chan KW, Jiang L, Cheng M, Wijnen JP, Liu G, Huang P, van Zijl PC, McMahon MT, Glunde K. CEST-MRI detects metabolite levels altered by breast cancer cell aggressiveness and chemotherapy response. NMR Biomed. 2016 Jun;29(6):806-16. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3526.

Mascini NE, Cheng M, Jiang L, Rizwan A, Podmore H, Bhandari DR, Römpp A, Glunde K, Heeren RM. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of the Hypoxia Marker Pimonidazole in a Breast Tumor Model. Anal Chem. 2016 Mar 15;88(6):3107-14. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04032.

Kahlert UD, Cheng M, Koch K, Marchionni L, Fan X, Raabe EH, Maciaczyk J, Glunde K, Eberhart CG. Alterations in Cellular Metabolome after Pharmacological Inhibition of Notch in Glioblastoma Cells. Int J Cancer. 2016 Mar 1;138(5):1246-55. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29873.


Mori N, Wildes F, Kakkad S, Jacob D, Solaiyappan M, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline kinase-α protein and phosphatidylcholine but not phosphocholine are required for breast cancer cell survival. NMR Biomed. 2015 Dec;28(12):1697-706. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3429.

Rizwan A, Cheng M, Bhujwalla ZM, Krishnamachary B, Jiang L, Glunde K. Breast cancer cell adhesome and degradome interact to drive metastasis. Npj Breast Cancer. 2015:1, Article number: 15017 doi:10.1038/npjbcancer.2015.17.

Kahlert UD, Koch K, Suwala AK, Hartmann R, Cheng M, Maciaczyk D, Willbold D, Eberhart CG, Glunde K, Maciaczyk J. The effect of neurosphere culture conditions on the cellular metabolism of glioma cells. Folia Neuropathol. 2015;53(3):219-25.

Jiang L, Chughtai K, Purvine SO, Bhujwalla ZM, Raman V, Paša-Tolić L, Heeren RM, Glunde K. MALDI-Mass Spectrometric Imaging Revealing Hypoxia-Driven Lipids and Proteins in a Breast Tumor Model. Anal Chem. 2015; 87: 5947-56.

Rizwan A, Bulte C, Kalaichelvan A, Cheng M, Krishnamachary B, Bhujwalla ZM, Jiang L, Glunde K. Metastatic breast cancer cells in lymph nodes increase nodal collagen density. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 10002.

Glunde K, Penet MF, Jiang L, Jacobs MA, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline metabolism-based molecular diagnosis of cancer: an update. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2015; 15: 735-47.


Wijnen JP, Jiang L, Greenwood TR, van der Kemp WJ, Klomp DW, Glunde K. 1H/31P Polarization Transfer at 9.4 Tesla for Improved Specificity of Detecting Phosphomonoesters and Phosphodiesters in Breast Tumor Models. PLoS One. 2014; 9: e102256.

Wijnen JP, Jiang L, Greenwood TR, Cheng M, Döpkens M, Cao MD, Bhujwalla ZM, Krishnamachary B, Klomp DWJ, Glunde K. Silencing of the glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase GDPD5 alters the phospholipid metabolite profile in a breast cancer model in vivo as monitored by 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 2014; 27: 692-9.

Gadiya M, Mori N, Cao MD, Mironchik Y, Kakkad S, Gribbestad IS, Glunde K, Krishnamachary B, Bhujwalla ZM. Phospholipase D1 and choline kinase-α are interactive targets in breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15: 593-601.


Chughtai K, Jiang L, Greenwood TR, Glunde K, Heeren RM. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models. J Lipid Res. 2013; 54: 333-44.

Jiang L, Greenwood TR, van Hove ER, Chughtai K, Raman V, Winnard PT Jr, Heeren RM, Artemov D, Glunde K. Combined MR, fluorescence and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model. NMR Biomed. 2013; 26: 285-98.

Chughtai K, Jiang L, Post H, Winnard PT Jr, Greenwood TR, Raman V, Bhujwalla ZM, Heeren RM, Glunde K. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Red Fluorescent Protein in Breast Tumor Xenografts. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2013; 24: 711-7.

Mori N, Gadiya M, Wildes F, Krishnamachary B, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Characterization of choline kinase in human endothelial cells. NMR Biomed. 2013; 26: 1501-7.

Kakkad SM, Penet MF, Akhbardeh A, Pathak AP, Solaiyappan M, Raman V, Leibfritz D, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Hypoxic tumor environments exhibit disrupted collagen I fibers and low macromolecular transport. PLoS One. 2013; 8: e81869.

Rizwan A, Glunde K. Imaging of tumor metabolism: MR spectroscopy. In “Functional imaging in oncology”. Edited by Luna Alcala A, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany. 2013.


Cao MD, Döpkens M, Krishnamachary B, Vesuna F, Gadiya MM, Lønning PE, Bhujwalla ZM, Gribbestad IS, Glunde K. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5) expression correlates with malignant choline phospholipid metabolite profiles in human breast cancer. NMR Biomed. 2012; 25: 1033-42.

Döpkens M, Greenwood TR, Vesuna F, Raman V, Leibfritz D, Glunde K. GDPD5 inhibition alters the choline phospholipid metabolite profile of breast cancer cells toward a less malignant metabolic profile. Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging. 2012; 1: 3–15.

Chughtai K, Jiang L, Greenwood TR, Klinkert I, Amstalden van Hove ER, Heeren RM, Glunde K. Fiducial markers for combined 3-dimensional mass spectrometric and optical tissue imaging. Anal Chem. 2012; 84: 1817-23.

Liu W, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM, Raman V, Sharma A, Phang JM. Proline oxidase promotes tumor cell survival in hypoxic tumor microenvironments. Cancer Res. 2012; 72: 3677-86.

Stasinopoulos I, Greenwood T, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Prostaglandin E2 promotes the nuclear accumulation of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 in poorly differentiated breast cancer cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2012; 99: 9-14.

Chen Z, Penet MF, Nimmagadda S, Li C, Banerjee SR, Winnard PT Jr, Artemov D, Glunde K, Pomper MG, Bhujwalla ZM. PSMA-targeted theranostic nanoplex for prostate cancer therapy. ACS Nano. 2012: 6: 7752-62.

Jiang L, Greenwood TR, Artemov D, Raman V, Winnard PT Jr, Heeren RM, Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde K. Localized hypoxia results in spatially heterogeneous metabolic signatures in breast tumor models. Neoplasia. 2012; 14: 732-41.

Kakkad SM, Solaiyappan M, Argani P, Sukumar S, Jacobs LK, Leibfritz D, Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde K. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study. J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17: 116017.

Penet MF, Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde K. MR spectroscopy in investigating the cancer metabolome in preclinical model systems. In “Methodologies in Metabolomics”. Edited by Lutz N, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 2012.

Jiang L, Wijnen JP, Glunde K. Malignant transformation: the role of MRS. Eur J Radiol. 2012; 81: 66-8.


Amstalden van Hove ER, Smith DF, Fornai L, Glunde K, Heeren RM. An alternative paper based tissue washing method for mass spectrometry imaging: localized washing and fragile tissue analysis. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2011; 22: 1885-90.

Glunde K, Bhuwjalla ZM. Metabolic tumor imaging using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Semin Oncol. 2011; 38: 26-41.

Glunde K, Jiang L, Mostue S, Gribbestad I. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Guidance in Molecular Medicine: Molecular Targeting and Monitoring of Choline and Lactate Metabolism in Cancer. NMR Biomed. 2011; 24: 673-90.

Stasinopoulos I, Penet MF, Chen Z, Kakkad S, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Exploiting the tumor microenvironment for theranostic imaging. NMR Biomed. 2011; 24: 636-47.

Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM, Ronen SM. Choline metabolism in malignant transformation. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011; 11: 835-48.

Glunde K. Signaling mechanisms and molecular targets in choline phospholipid metabolism in cancer. In “Signalling mechanisms and molecular targets in choline metabolism in cancer”. Edited by Chatterjee M, Springer, India. 2011.


Iorio E, Ricci A, Bagnoli M, Pisanu ME, Castellano G, Di Vito M, Venturini E, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM, Mezzanzanica D, Canevari S, Podo F. Activation of phosphatidylcholine cycle enzymes in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2010; 70: 2126-35.

Chen Y, Yuan S, Li Q, Naphas R, Wierwille J, Blackwell TR, Winnard PT Jr, Raman V, Glunde K. Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Fluorescence Laminar Optical Tomography (FLOT). IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 2010; 16: 755-66.

Shah T, Wildes F, Penet MF, Winnard PT Jr, Glunde K, Artemov D, Ackerstaff E, Raman V, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline kinase overexpression increases invasiveness and drug resistance of human breast cancer cells. NMR Biomed. 2010; 23: 633-42.

Amstalden van Hove ER, Blackwell TR, Klinkert I, Eijkel G, Heeren RMA, Glunde, K. Multi-modal mass spectrometric imaging of small molecules reveals distinct spatio-molecular signatures in differentially metastatic breast tumor models. Cancer Res. 2010; 70: 9012-21.

Kakkad SM, Solaiyappan M, O’Rourke B, Stasinopoulos I, Ackerstaff E, Raman V, Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde, K. Hypoxic tumor microenvironments reduce collagen I fiber density. Neoplasia. 2010; 12: 608-17.

Glunde K, Artemov D, Penet MF, Jacobs MA, Bhujwalla, ZM. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Metabolic and Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis of Cancer. Chem Rev. 2010; 110: 3043-59.

Penet MF, Mikhaylova M, Li C, Krishnamachary B, Glunde K, Pathak AP, Bhujwalla ZM. Applications of Molecular MRI and Optical Imaging in Cancer. Future Med Chem. 2010; 2: 975-88.


Serkova NJ, Glunde K. Metabolomics of Cancer. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 520: 273-95.

Hanselmann M, Koethe U, Kirchner M, Renard BY, Amstalden ER, Glunde K, Heeren RMA, Hamprecht FA. Towards Digital Staining using Imaging Mass Spectrometry and Random Forests. Journal of Proteome Research. 2009; 8: 3558-67.

Chen CW, Blackwell TR, Winnard PT Jr, Raman V, Glunde K, Chen Y. Development of needle-based microendoscopy for fluorescence molecular imaging of breast tumor models. Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences. 2009; 2: 343-52.

Glunde K, Stasinopoulos I. ADAM17: The new face of breast cancer-promoting metalloprotease activity. Cancer Biology and Therapy. 2009; 8: 1151-53.

Krishnamachary B, Glunde K, Wildes F, Mori N, Takagi T, Raman V, Bhujwalla ZM. Non-invasive detection of lentiviral-mediated choline kinase targeting in a human breast cancer xenograft. Cancer Res. 2008;69: 3464-71.

Nimmagadda S, Glunde K, Pomper MG, Bhujwalla ZM. Pharmacodynamic markers for choline kinase downregulation in breast cancer cells. Neoplasia. 2009; 11: 477-84.

Glunde K, Jacobs MA, Pathak AP, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer. NMR Biomed. 2009; 22: 92-103.

Glunde K, Gillies RR, Neeman M, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular and Functional Imaging of the Tumor Microenvironment. In “Molecular Imaging: Principles and Practice”. Edited by Weissleder R, Gambhir SS, Ross BD, Rehemtulla A, BC Decker Inc, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 2009.


Glunde K, Shah T, Winnard PT Jr, Raman V, Takagi T, Vesuna F, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Hypoxia regulates choline kinase expression through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha signaling in a human prostate cancer model. Cancer Res. 2008; 68: 172-80.

Mori N, Glunde K, Takagi T, Raman V, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline kinase down-regulation increases the effect of 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008; 67: 11284-90.

Li C, Greenwood TR, Glunde K. Glucosamine-bound near-infrared fluorescent probes with lysosomal specificity for breast tumor imaging. Neoplasia. 2008; 10: 389-98.

Hanselmann M, Kirchner M, Renard BY, Amstalden ER, Glunde K, Heeren RMA, Hamprecht FA. Concise representation of mass spectrometry images by probabilistic latent semantic analysis. Anal Chem. 2008; 80: 9649–58.

Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Will magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based contrast agents for molecular receptor imaging make their way into the clinic? J Cell Mol Med. 2008; 12: 187-8.

Penet MF, Glunde K, Jacobs MA, Pathak AP, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular and functional MRI of the tumor microenvironment. J Nucl Med. 2008; 49: 687-90.

Li C, Glunde K. Optical imaging probes and techniques for cancer imaging. In “Recent Advances of Bioconjugate Chemistry in Molecular Imaging”. Edited by Chen S, Research Signpost, Trivandrum, Kerala, India. 2008.

Penet MF, Glunde K, Jacobs MA, Mori N, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Oncological applications of MR spectroscopy. In ”Textbook of Molecular Imaging in Oncology”. Edited by Pomper M, Gelovani J, Taylor-Francis, London, UK. 2008.


Stasinopoulos I, O’Brien DR, Wildes F, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits metastasis and delays tumor onset of poorly differentiated metastatic breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2007; 5: 435-42.

Raman V, Pathak AP, Glunde K, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Magnetic resonance imaging of transgenic mouse models of cancer. NMR Biomed. 2007; 20: 186-99.

Glunde K, Pathak AP, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular-Functional Imaging of Cancer: To Image and Imagine. Trend Mol Med. 2007; 13: 289-97.

Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline kinase alpha in cancer prognosis and treatment. Lancet Oncol. 2007; 8, 855-57.

Jacobs MA, Glunde K, Gimi B, Pathak AP, Ackerstaff E, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. MR Molecular and Functional Imaging of Cancer. In “Molecular and Cellular MR Imaging”. Edited by Modo MMJ, Bulte JWM, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2007.

Glunde K, Foss CA, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular Imaging in Cancer. In “Biomedical Information Technology”. Edited by Feng DD, Elsevier, Burlington, MA. 2007.


Glunde K, Jie C, Bhujwalla ZM. Mechanisms of indomethacin-induced alterations in choline phospholipid metabolism of breast cancer cells. Neoplasia. 2006; 8: 758-71.

Glunde K, Serkova NJ. Therapeutic targets and biomarkers identified in cancer choline phospholipid metabolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2006; 7: 1109-23.

Glunde K, Ackerstaff E, Mori N, Jacobs MA, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline phospholipid metabolism in cancer: consequences for molecular pharmaceutical interventions. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2006; 3: 496-506.

Li C, Greenwood TR, Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde K. Synthesis and characterization of glucosamine-bound near-infrared probes for optical imaging. Org Lett. 2006; 8: 3623-26.

Glunde K, Jacobs MA, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline Metabolism in Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis and Therapy. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006; 6: 821-29.

Bhujwalla ZM, Glunde K, Ackerstaff E, Pathak AP, Gimi B, Artemov D. Molecular Imaging in Cancer Therapies of the Future. In “In vivo MR Techniques in Drug Discovery and Development”. Edited by Beckmann N, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2006.


Glunde K, Foss CA, Takagi T, Wildes F, Bhujwalla ZM. Synthesis of 6’-O-lissamine-rhodamine B-glucosamine as a novel probe for fluorescence imaging of lysosomes in breast tumors. Bioconjug Chem. 2005; 16: 843-51.

Gimi B, Pathak AP, Ackerstaff E, Glunde K, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular imaging of cancer: Applications of MR methods. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005; 93: 784-99.

Glunde K, Raman V, Mori N, Bhujwalla ZM. RNA interference-mediated choline kinase suppression in breast cancer cells induces differentiation and reduces proliferation. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 11034-43.

Bhujwalla ZM, Ackerstaff E, Artemov D, Glunde K, Pathak AP, Raman V, Solaiyappan M. In vivo cellular and molecular imaging of cancer. In “Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Proceedings of the International Workshop”. Edited by Jagannathan NR, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2005; pages 247-56.


Glunde K, Jie C, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular causes of the aberrant choline phospholipid metabolism of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2004; 64: 4270-76.

Pathak AP, Gimi B, Glunde K, Ackerstaff E, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular and functional imaging of cancer: Advances in MRI and MRS. Methods Enzymol. 2004; 386: 3-60.


Glunde K, Guggino SE, Ichikawa Y, Bhujwalla ZM. A novel method of optically imaging lysosomes in living human mammary epithelial cells. Mol Imaging. 2003; 2: 24-36.

Glunde K, Guggino SE, Solaiyappan M, Pathak AP, Ichikawa Y, Bhujwalla ZM. Extracellular acidification alters lysosomal trafficking in human breast cancer cells. Neoplasia. 2003; 5: 533-45.

Ackerstaff E, Glunde K, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline Phospholipid Metabolism: A target in cancer cells? J Cell Biochem. 2003; 90: 525-53.


Glunde K, Düßmann H, Juretschke HP, Leibfritz D. Na+/H+ exchange subtype 1 inhibition during extracellular acidification and hypoxia in glioma cells. J Neurochem. 2002; 80: 36-44.

Glunde K, Ackerstaff E, Natarajan K, Artemov D, Bhujwalla ZM. Real-time changes in 1H and 31P NMR spectra of malignant human mammary epithelial cells during treatment with the anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin. Magn Reson Med. 2002; 48: 819-25.


Glunde K. Dissertation. Ionenhomöostase und Metabolismus neuraler Zellen während der Azidose und Hypoxie: Rolle des Na+/H+-Austausches, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2000, ISBN 3-8265-7869-4.